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Information Literacy Archaeology: Correct citing and referencing

Three ways to refer to literature

There are three ways to use refences in your text: 

- Citing plus a reference to the source

- Paraphrasing plus a reference to the source

- Using a reference to the source without citing or paraphrasing

Academic integrity

When you are using sources you have to do this accurately and in an above-board way. 

Ownership
When you use other people’s work, you must state the exact source and author(s). Scientific advances are seldom achieved by one person alone. They are the result of work by many people, who deserve to be named when their contribution is used.

Verifiability
You use source references so that others can see what you have based your work on. They must be able to access the same information. This is why you should only use published sources.

Citing

Citing means repeating or copying out someone else’s words. You should cite when a formulation is so precise that it would lose its meaning or significance if worded differently. When you cite someone else’s work, you must put the text between quotation marks and provide a source reference.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing means describing passages from other people’s publications in your own words. When paraphrasing you are not copying the text but re-writing it. It is very important in terms of linking the work to your own text and ideas. If you do not use paraphrasing, your text will give the impression of being ‘cut and pasted’. 

Paraphrasing should not be used to make texts ‘read better’, and certainly not to conceal the fact that a text is actually someone else’s work. You always have to provide a source reference, so also when you paraphrase.

Literature list

The literature list, reference list or bibliography is a list of the literature sources the author of a paper, essay, article or book has used for her/his research. It appears at the end of the text. In science there are very strict rules for the lay-out of such a list. Different scientific disciplines use different output styles. (i.e. APA, MLA, Chicago, Vancouver, Harvard).

In the Archaeology Department the Harvard style is the style of choice.

Foot notes

Apart from a reference list or bibliography, scholars also use foot notes to refer to the sources used. With foot notes the source references appear at the bottom of each page instead of at the end of the text.

Like a reference list, the foot notes also have to be in a specific output style. In the case of Archaeology this is the Harvard style.

Citing in Harvard Style

Citation styles

In the academic world there are strict rules for setting out source references. Each discipline has its own citation style. Also, references are set out differently depending on whether you use them in a bibliography, in the text itself, in a footnote or in an endnote. During your study you will learn which citation styles should be used for your discipline. 

Beneath you will find some examples of citation styles, referring to a journal article in this case: 

APA-style:

HAUCK, MARKUS. (November 01, 2009). Global warming and alternative causes of decline in arctic-alpine and boreal-montane lichens in North-Western Central Europe. Global Change Biology, 15, 11, 2653-2661.

Chicago-style:

HAUCK, MARKUS. 2009. "Global warming and alternative causes of decline in arctic-alpine and boreal-montane lichens in North-Western Central Europe". Global Change Biology. 15 (11): 2653-2661.

Harvard-style:

HAUCK, M. 2009, "Global warming and alternative causes of decline in arctic-alpine and boreal-montane lichens in North-Western Central Europe", Global Change Biology, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2653-2661.

MLA-style:

HAUCK, MARKUS. "Global Warming and Alternative Causes of Decline in Arctic-Alpine and Boreal-Montane Lichens in North-Western Central Europe." Global Change Biology. 15.11 (2009): 2653-2661. Print.

Turabian:

HAUCK, MARKUS. 2009. "Global Warming and Alternative Causes of Decline in Arctic-Alpine and Boreal-Montane Lichens in North-Western Central Europe". Global Change Biology. 15, no. 11: 2653-2661.